Despite losses for the SPD, the Red-Green coalition government commanded a very slight majority in the Bundestag and was renewed, with Joschka Fischer as foreign minister, Renate Künast as minister for consumer protection, nutrition and agriculture, and Jürgen Trittin as minister for the environment. The Greens benefited from increased inroads among traditionally left-wing demographics which had benefited from Green-initiated legislation in the — term, such as environmentalists Renewable Energies Act and LGBT groups Registered Partnership Law. Constructions of European Identity:
In , after Angelika Beer was elected to the European parliament , Claudia Roth was elected to replace her as party chair. The November party convention was held in Dresden and decided the election platform for the European Parliament elections.
The November convention is also noteworthy because it was the first convention of a German political party ever to use an electronic voting system.
The Greens gained a record 13 of Germany's 99 seats in these elections, mainly due to the perceived competence of Green ministers in the federal government and the unpopularity of the Social Democratic Party. At the end of April , they celebrated the decommissioning of the Obrigheim nuclear power station. They also continue to support a bill for an Anti-Discrimination Law de: Allgemeines Gleichbehandlungsgesetz in the Bundestag.
In May , the only remaining state-level red-green coalition government lost the vote in the North Rhine-Westphalia state election , leaving only the federal government with participation of the Greens apart from local governments. In the early federal election the party incurred very small losses and achieved 8. However, due to larger losses of the SPD, the previous coalition no longer had a majority in the Bundestag.
For almost two years after the federal election in , the Greens were not part of any government at the state or federal level. Although the GAL had to agree to the deepening of the Elbe River, the construction of a new coal-fired power station and two road projects they had opposed, they also received some significant concessions from the CDU.
These included reforming state schools by increasing the number of primary school educational stages , the restoration of trams as public transportation in the city-state , and more pedestrian-friendly real estate development.
On 29 November , the coalition collapsed, resulting in an election that was won by SPD. Following the Saarland state election of August , The Greens held the balance of power after a close election where no two-party coalitions could create a stable majority government. The Greens and the SPD came one seat short of a governing majority, but after multiple negotiations about coalitions of SPD and Greens with either the FDP or The Left, the SPD and Greens decided to form a minority government ,  which was possible because under the constitution of North Rhine-Westphalia a plurality of seats is sufficient to elect a minister-president.
The Greens founded the first international chapter of a German political party in the U. Its main goal is "to provide a platform for politically active and green-oriented German citizens, in and beyond Washington D.
In March two weeks after the Fukushima nuclear disaster had begun , the Greens made large gains in Rhineland-Palatinate and in Baden-Württemberg.
In Baden-Württemberg they became the senior partner in a governing coalition for the first time. Polling data from August indicated that one in five Germans supported the Greens. Like the Social Democrats, the Greens backed Chancellor Angela Merkel on most bailout votes in the German parliament during her second term, saying their pro-European stances overrode party politics. Timelines showing the number of seats and percentage of party list votes won are on the right.
From the inception of the party, they have been concerned with the immediate halt of construction or operation of all nuclear power stations. As an alternative, they promote a shift to alternative energy and a comprehensive program of energy conservation. In , large parts of Germany were covered with radioactive contamination from the Chernobyl disaster and Germans went to great lengths to deal with the contamination. Germany's anti-nuclear stance was strengthened.
From the mids onwards, anti-nuclear protests were primarily directed against transports of radioactive waste in "CASTOR" containers. After the Chernobyl disaster, the Greens became more radicalised and resisted compromise on the nuclear issue. During the s, a re-orientation towards a moderate program occurred, with concern about global warming and ozone depletion taking a more prominent role.
During the federal red-green government — many people became disappointed with what they saw as excessive compromise on key Greens policies. Energy policy is still the most important cross-cutting issue in climate and economic policies. Implementation of Green Policy would see electricity generation from percent renewable sources as early as The development of renewable energy and combined heat and power is also a great opportunity for technical and economic innovation.
Solar industry and environmental technologies are already a significant part of key industries providing jobs which need to be developed and promoted vigorously. In addition, a priority of green energy policy is increasing the thermal insulation and energy efficiency of homes, the phaseout of all nuclear energy generation with possible high-efficiency gas-fired power plants operational during the transition phase.
The central idea of green politics is sustainable development. In particular, the economic, energy and transport policy claims are in close interaction with environmental considerations. The Greens acknowledge the natural environment as a high priority and animal protection should be enshrined as a national objective in constitutional law.
An effective environmental policy would be based on a common environmental code, with the urgent integration of a climate change bill. During the red-green coalition — a policy of agricultural change was launched labeled as a paradigm shift in agricultural policy towards a more ecological friendly agriculture, which needs to continue. Climate change is at the center of all policy considerations. This includes environmental policy and safety and social aspects. A similarly high priority is given to transport policy.
The switch from a traveling allowance to a mobility allowance, which is paid regardless of income to all employees, replacing company car privileges.
The truck toll will act as a climate protection instrument internalizing the external costs of transport. Railway should be promoted in order to achieve the desired environmental objectives and the comprehensive care of customers. The railway infrastructure is to remain permanently in the public sector, allowing a reduction in expenditure on road construction infrastructure.
The Greens want to control privileges on kerosene and for international flights, introduce an air ticket levy. For many years, the Green Party has advocated against the "Ehegattensplitting" policy, under which the incomes of married couples are split for taxation purposes. Furthermore, the Party advocates for a massive increase in spending for places in preschools on the federal level. Investment in education should also be increased on the higher levels: In its platform in , the Green Party advocated for a minimum wage of 8.
The Greens want to continue having the age of 67 be the start of retirement,  though they want to include some provisions, for example considering partial retirement. When it comes to drug usage, the Greens want to decriminalize marijuana usage and allow for private growing of plants. The Green Party supports the implementation of quotas in executive boards, the policy of equal pay for equal work, and continuing the fight against domestic violence.
The Infratest Dimap political research company has suggested the Green voter demographic includes those on higher incomes e. The same polling research also concluded that the Greens received fewer votes from the unemployed and general working population, with business people favouring the party as well as the centre-right liberal Free Democratic Party.
According to Infratest Dimap the Greens received more voters from the age group 34—42 than any other age group and that the young were generally more supportive of the party than the old. Intrafest Dimap political research company for the ARD. The Greens have a higher voter demographic in urban areas than rural areas, except for a small number of rural areas with pressing local environmental concerns, such as strip mining or radioactive waste deposits.
The party has a lower level of support in the states of the former German Democratic Republic East Germany. In , the Greens were represented in the parliament of all German states, which is however not the case anymore as of October This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. August Learn how and when to remove this template message.
Politics of Germany Political parties Elections. Foundation congress Edit In the s, environmentalists and peace activists politically organised amongst thousands of action groups.
It was at this congress, that the Greens lay their ideological foundations, proclaiming the famous Four Pillars of the Green Party: Social justice Ecological wisdom Grassroots democracy Nonviolence s: Energy and nuclear power Edit See also: Anti-nuclear movement in Germany.
This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Parties and Elections in Europe. Constructions of European Identity: Debates and Discourses on Turkey and the EU. Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung. Abu-Kariba's forces reached Yathrib and, meeting no resistance, they passed through the city, leaving the king's son behind as governor. Abu-Kariba soon received news that the people of Yathrib had killed his son.
He turned back in order to wreak vengeance on the city. After cutting down the palm trees from which the inhabitants derived their main income, he laid siege to the city. The Jews of Yathrib fought side by side with their pagan neighbors. During the siege Abu-Kariba fell severely ill. Two Jewish scholars in Yathrib, Ka'ab and Asad by name, called on the king in his camp and used their knowledge of medicine to restore him to health.
While attending the king, they pleaded with him to lift the siege and make peace. The sages' appeal is said to have persuaded Abu-Kariba; he called off his attack and also embraced Judaism along with his entire army. Initially, there was great resistance. After an ordeal had justified the king's demand and confirmed the truth of the Jewish faith, many Himyarites supported Judaism.
Some historians argue that the people were not motivated by politics, but that Judaism, by its philosophical, simplistic, and austere nature, was attractive to the nature of the Semitic people. Abu-Kariba continued to engage in military campaigns and met his death under unclear circumstances. Some scholars believe that his own soldiers killed him. Christian sources interpret the event as a martyrdom at Jewish hands: His death may have been intended to deter the extension of Byzantine influence.
The first Aksumite invasion took place sometime in the 5th century and was triggered by the persecution of Christians. Two Christian sources, including the Zuqnin Chronicle once attributed to Dionysius I Telmaharoyo , which was written more than three centuries later, say that the Himyarite king prompted the killings by stating, "This is because in the countries of the Romans the Christians wickedly harass the Jews who live in their countries and kill many of them.
Therefore I am putting these men to death. During this period, references to pagan gods disappeared from royal inscriptions and texts on public buildings, and were replaced by references to a single deity. There is evidence that the solar goddess Shams was especially favoured in Himyar, being the national goddess and possibly an ancestral deity.
Many later on moved to central Jordan to settle in Madaba under the family name of Al-Hamarneh pop 12,, est. The few 'Himyarite' texts seem to be rhymed. After the spread of Islam in Yemen, Himyarite noble families were able to re-establish control over parts of Yemen.
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