The formal titles of the currency are euro for the major unit and cent for the minor one-hundredth unit and for official use in most eurozone languages; according to the ECB, all languages should use the same spelling for the nominative singular. NDFs are popular for currencies with restrictions such as the Argentinian peso. There are two models, both proposed by Robert Mundell:
In the years following the Single European Act , the EU has liberalised its capital markets and, as the ECB has inflation targeting as its monetary policy , the exchange-rate regime of the euro is floating. The euro is the second-most widely held reserve currency after the U.
After its introduction on 4 January its exchange rate against the other major currencies fell reaching its lowest exchange rates in 3 May vs Pound sterling , 25 October vs the U. Afterwards it regained and its exchange rate reached its historical highest point in 15 July vs U. With the advent of the global financial crisis the euro initially fell, to regain later. Despite pressure due to the European sovereign-debt crisis the euro remained stable. The formal titles of the currency are euro for the major unit and cent for the minor one-hundredth unit and for official use in most eurozone languages; according to the ECB, all languages should use the same spelling for the nominative singular.
Official practice for English-language EU legislation is to use the words euro and cent as both singular and plural,  although the European Commission's Directorate-General for Translation states that the plural forms euros and cents should be used in English. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the currency. For other uses, see Euro disambiguation.
For other uses, see EUR disambiguation. Other partial users 1. Single euro payments area 13 from Abandoned treaties and agreements. Council of the EU Presidency.
European Court of Justice. Participating Schengen Area States. Candidate Countries for EU Membership. Foreign relations of EU Member States. Euro coins and Euro banknotes. Single Euro Payments Area. History of the euro. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. December Learn how and when to remove this template message.
Eurozone crisis and Greek government-debt crisis. Eurozone , International status and usage of the euro , and Enlargement of the eurozone. International status and usage of the euro. External adopters of the euro. Currencies pegged to the euro. Currencies pegged to the euro within narrow band. External adopters of the US dollar. Currencies pegged to the US dollar. Currencies pegged to the US dollar within narrow band. Euro exchange rate against U. Linguistic issues concerning the euro.
Euro portal Money portal European Union portal Numismatics portal. The Caribbean Netherlands introduced the United States dollar in Official Journal of the European Union. Retrieved 30 May Retrieved 17 July Archived from the original on 7 June Total EUR currency coins and banknotes in circulation Archived from the original PDF on 22 February Retrieved 13 December Federal Reserve Statistical Release.
Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. Retrieved 1 April Archived from the original on 15 January Retrieved 29 May Retrieved 8 September Retrieved 2 January Bank for International Settlements. Retrieved 7 February Retrieved 25 July Retrieved 27 December Retrieved 8 December Retrieved 28 August Retrieved 14 February Retrieved 5 March Retrieved 29 January The European Central Bank: History, Role and Functions pdf 2nd ed. Retrieved 18 December The adjustment is done on the basis of data provided by the European Commission.
Retrieved 7 April Retrieved 26 November Archived from the original PDF on 5 December Retrieved 16 November Rules for expressing monetary units". Archived from the original on 6 March Retrieved 17 December Central Bank of Ireland.
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Retrieved 1 December Retrieved 24 July A Critical Review of Sterp". Retrieved 30 April Retrieved 8 July Archived from the original PDF on 25 August Retrieved 17 September Retrieved 8 November Straw says eurozone 'will collapse ' ".
Triennial Central Bank Survey. Retrieved 22 March Risk aversion in the Eurozone , Research in Economics , vol. Evidence from the European Car Market". Journal of International Economics. The History of the Bundesbank: Lessons for the European Central Bank. The Euro and European Labour Markets". Journal of Public Policy. Retrieved 19 December Retrieved 2 October Archived from the original PDF on 24 July Review of International Economics. Review of World Economics. Retrieved 13 July Is there a Positive Effect?
Archived from the original PDF on 3 September The trade effect of the euro in historical perspective". Journal of International Money and Finance. Archived from the original PDF on 31 August Archived from the original PDF on 6 July International Journal of Central Banking.
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Lane 22 August The origins of the euro crisis". Retrieved 16 September Archived from the original on 17 March Retrieved 13 March Evidence from micro data" PDF. Archived from the original PDF on 19 July Retrieved 28 December Retrieved 28 March Retrieved 29 December The euro is the single currency of the member states that have adopted it. To make this singleness apparent, Community law requires a single spelling of the word euro in the nominative singular case in all community and national legislative provisions, taking into account the existence of different alphabets.
Retrieved 12 January English Style Guide section Like 'pound', 'dollar' or any other currency name in English, the word 'euro' is written in lower case with no initial capital and, where appropriate, takes the plural 's' as does 'cent'. Euro at Wikipedia's sister projects.
Proposed eurobonds Reserve currency Petroeuro World currency. Andorra Monaco San Marino Vatican. Humans make mistakes, hackers make mistakes. The chosen nodes are random and might be set up on different continents. There is no way to predict your random traffic-routes and even if there was a way to do so, an agency would have to compromise at least two out of three servers to identify you.
Anyone can set up a tor-server, especially when you already have a web-server with a static IP address. Even this server hacksenkessel is a tor-server. You can find an overview of some tor-servers here. At the time of this article, there is a complete, integrated and pre-installed tor browser bundle available, which can be downloaded from the official Tor-Project site.
Decompress the downloaded tor browser bundle to your linux home directory and execute the script start-tor-browser:. We need to install and configure a tor daemon and privoxy for that. A tor daemon and privoxy daemon solve this issue by permanently providing a local proxy that allows console applications to communicate via tor-tunnel with the WWW.
Best practice is to have them automatically started on bootup. To install tor and privoxy daemons on a debian-linux based operating system, simply install it from the repository:. After the installation you can setup the tor- and privoxy daemon according to this manual. To let console applications know that there is a local proxy listening, you have to set the proxy environment variables permanently in your.
From now on, console applications try to communicate through privoxy and tor to the outside world, but there is one important step to guarantee that nothing else on your machine communicates with the outside world without tor:. As already mentioned above you need to protect your privacy from your own mistakes.
The iptables rules below make sure that nothing on your system communicates without tor. Please make sure that these rules are are automatically loaded after each boot up and do not rely on activating them manually. The following iptables rules assume a debian-linux based operating system like kali, ubuntu or mint.
The below users debian-tor and privoxy might have different names on other linux distributions. Here are the firewall rules:. The easiest way to evaluate this is to have a web- server somewhere, login via ssh through the tor-tunnel from your machine to the web-server and use tcpdump on the web-server to check if there are any incoming datapackets originating from your machine. If you do see any datapackets originating from your machine on your web-server, you did something wrong and your original IP address has been revealed.
This is the moment you get caught. Your ssh-connection as well as every single tool you use for penetration testing should be tested via tcpdump.
The above rules make sure that even pings ICMP packets cannot be sent to the target machine. There are several ways to encrypt a partition, i.
You can from now on open the encrypted partition via option luksOpen and then mount it as usual:. Please note that the device name crypt such as ext4 as filesystem format is optional.
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