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Classical manuals of Islamic jurisprudence often contained a section called Book of Jihad , with rules governing the conduct of war covered at great length. Such rules include treatment of nonbelligerents, women, children also cultivated or residential areas ,   and division of spoils.
The first documentation of the law of jihad was written by 'Abd al-Rahman al-Awza'i and Muhammad ibn al-Hasan al-Shaybani. It grew out of debates that surfaced following Muhammad's death. According to one scholar Majid Khadduri , this is most likely because unlike the pillars of prayer , fasting , etc. In the early era that inspired classical Islam Rashidun Caliphate and lasted less than a century, jihad spread the realm of Islam to include millions of subjects, and an area extending "from the borders of India and China to the Pyrenees and the Atlantic".
By the Persian empire was conquered and by the Byzantine empire was reduced to a fraction of its former size. The role of religion in these early conquests is debated. Medieval Arabic authors believed the conquests were commanded by God, and presented them as orderly and disciplined, under the command of the caliph. There was no thought of spreading the religion of Islam. Military advantage, economic desires, [and] the attempt to strengthen the hand of the state and enhance its sovereignty According to some authors, [ who?
Islamic scholar Rudolph Peters also wrote that with the stagnation of Islamic expansionism, the concept of jihad became internalized as a moral or spiritual struggle. Later Muslims in this case modernists such as Muhammad Abduh and Rashid Rida emphasized the defensive aspect of jihad—which was similar to the Western concept of a " just war ". Bernard Lewis states that while most Islamic theologians in the classical period — CE understood jihad to be a military endeavor,  after Islamic conquest stagnated and the caliphate broke up into smaller states the "irresistible and permanent jihad came to an end".
As jihad became unfeasible it was "postponed from historic to messianic time. They made no attempt to recover Spain or Sicily. When the Ottoman Caliph called for a "Great Jihad" by all Muslims against Allied powers during World War I, there were hopes and fears that non-Turkish Muslims would side with Ottoman Turkey, but the appeal did not "[unite] the Muslim world",   and Muslims did not turn on their non-Muslim commanders in the Allied forces.
These were overturned by the popular war hero Mustafa Kemal , who was also a secularist and later abolished the caliphate. With the Islamic revival , a new " fundamentalist " movement arose, with some different interpretations of Islam, which often placed an increased emphasis on jihad. The Wahhabi movement which spread across the Arabian peninsula starting in the 18th century, emphasized jihad as armed struggle.
The so-called Fulbe jihad states and a few other jihad states in West Africa were established by a series of offensive wars in the 19th century. In the twentieth century, many Islamist groups appeared, being strongly influenced by the social frustrations following the economic crises of the s and s. According to Rudolph Peters and Natana J.
DeLong-Bas , the new "fundamentalist" movement brought a reinterpretation of Islam and their own writings on jihad. These writings tended to be less interested and involved with legal arguments, what the different of schools of Islamic law had to say, or in solutions for all potential situations.
Contemporary fundamentalists were often influenced by jurist Ibn Taymiyya 's, and journalist Sayyid Qutb 's, ideas on jihad. Ibn Taymiyya hallmark themes included. He identified as heretical and deviant Muslims anyone who propagated innovations bida' contrary to the Quran and Sunna Abandoning it means losing entirely or partially both kinds of happiness. Jihad for freedom cannot cease until the Satanic forces are put to an end and the religion is purified for God in toto.
If non-Muslims were waging a "war against Islam", jihad against them was not offensive but defensive. He also insisted that Christians and Jews were mushrikeen not monotheists because he alleged gave their priests or rabbis "authority to make laws, obeying laws which were made by them [and] not permitted by God" and "obedience to laws and judgments is a sort of worship". While Qutb felt that jihad was a proclamation of "liberation for humanity", Farag stressed that jihad would enable Muslims to rule the world and to reestablish the caliphate.
Farag believed that if Muslims followed their duty and waged jihad, ultimately supernatural divine intervention would provide the victory: This means that a Muslim has first of all the duty to execute the command to fight with his own hands. In this way victory will be achieved through the hands of the believers by means of God's [intervention]. Farag included deceiving the enemy, lying to him, attacking by night even if it leads to accidentally killing innocents , and felling and burning trees of the infidel, as Islamically legitimate methods of fighting.
More police than terrorists were killed that year and "several senior police officials and their bodyguards were shot dead in daylight ambushes. In the s the Muslim Brotherhood cleric Abdullah Azzam , sometimes called "the father of the modern global jihad",  opened the possibility of successfully waging jihad against unbelievers in the here and now. Azzam issued a fatwa calling for jihad against the Soviet occupation of Afghanistan , declaring it an individual obligation for all able bodied Muslims because it was a defensive jihad to repel invaders.
His fatwa was endorsed by a number of clerics including leading Saudi clerics such as Sheikh Abd al-Aziz ibn Baz.
Azzam claimed that "anyone who looks into the state of Muslims today will find that their great misfortune is their abandonment of Jihad ", and he also warned that "without Jihad , shirk joining partners with Allah will spread and become dominant". Azzam also argued for a broader interpretation of who it was permissible to kill in jihad, an interpretation that some think may have influenced some of his students, including Osama bin Laden. Many Muslims know about the hadith in which the Prophet ordered his companions not to kill any women or children, etc.
In summary, Muslims do not have to stop an attack on mushrikeen, if non-fighting women and children are present. A charismatic speaker, Azzam traveled to dozens of cities in Europe and North American to encourage support for jihad in Afghanistan. He inspired young Muslims with stories of miraculous deeds during jihad—mujahideen who defeated vast columns of Soviet troops virtually single-handed, who had been run over by tanks but survived, who were shot but unscathed by bullets.
Angels were witnessed riding into battle on horseback, and falling bombs were intercepted by birds, which raced ahead of the jets to form a protective canopy over the warriors. Between and an estimated 35, individual Muslim volunteers went to Afghanistan to fight the Soviets and their Afghan regime. Thousands more attended frontier schools teeming with former and future fighters. Azzam saw Afghanistan as the beginning of jihad to repel unbelievers from many countries—the southern Soviet Republics of Central Asia , Bosnia , the Philippines , Kashmir , Somalia , Eritrea , Spain , and especially his home country of Palestine.
Having tasted victory in Afghanistan, many of the thousands of fighters returned to their home country such as Egypt, Algeria, Kashmir or to places like Bosnia to continue jihad. Not all the former fighters agreed with Azzam's chioice of targets Azzam was assassinated in November but former Afghan fighters led or participated in serious insurgencies in Egypt, Algeria, Kashmir, Somalia in the s and later creating a "transnational jihadist stream. In Shia Islam , Jihad is one of the ten Practices of the Religion ,  though not one of the five pillars.
Traditionally, Twelver Shi'a doctrine has differed from that of Sunni Islam on the concept of jihad, with jihad being "seen as a lesser priority" in Shia theology and "armed activism" by Shia being "limited to a person's immediate geography". According to a number of sources, [ which? At least one important contemporary Shia figure, Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini , the leader of the Iranian Revolution and the founder of the Islamic Republic of Iran , wrote a treatise on the "Greater Jihad" i.
Because of their history of being oppressed, Shias also associated jihad with certain passionate features, notably in the remembrance of Ashura.
In Islamic tradition jihad or the struggle in the way of God, whether as armed struggle, or any form of opposition of the wrong, is generally regarded as one of the essential requirements of a person's faith as a Muslim. If, therefore, Husayn 's struggle against the Umayyad regime must be regarded as an act of jihad, then, In the mind of devotees, the participation of the community in his suffering and its ascent to the truth of his message must also be regarded as an extension of the holy struggle of the Imam himself.
The hadith from which we took the title of this chapter states this point very clearly. Hence, the concept of jihad holy struggle gained a deeper and more personal meaning.
Whether through weeping, the composition and recitation of poetry, showing compassion and doing good to the poor or carrying arms, the Shi'i Muslim saw himself helping the Imam in his struggle against the wrong zulm and gaining for himself the same merit thawab of those who actually fought and died for him. The ta'ziyah , in its broader sense the sharing of the entire life of the suffering family of Muhammad, has become for the Shi'i community the true meaning of compassion.
Jihad has been used by Shia Islamists in the 20th Century: Nonetheless it has not had the high-profile or global significance it had among Sunni Islamists. According to The National , this changed with the Syrian Civil War , where, "for the first time in the history of Shia Islam, adherents are seeping into another country to fight in a holy war to defend their doctrine.
Martyrdom resulting from an attack on the enemy with no concern for your own safety was praiseworthy, but dying by your own hand as opposed to the enemies merited a special place in Hell.
Based on the 20th century interpretations of Sayyid Qutb , Abdullah Azzam , Ruhollah Khomeini , Al-Qaeda and others, many if not all of those self-proclaimed jihad fighters believe that defensive global jihad is a personal obligation, which means that no caliph or Muslim head of state needs to declare it.
Killing yourself in the process of killing the enemy is an act of martyrdom and it brings you a special place in Heaven , not a special place in Hell; and the killing of Muslim bystanders, never mind non-Muslims , should not impede acts of jihad. Theologian Abu Abdullah al-Muhajir has been identified as the key theorist behind modern jihadist violence. The book has been described as rationalising "the murder of non-combatants" by The Guardian ' s Mark Towsend, citing Salah al-Ansari of Quilliam who notes "There is a startling lack of study and concern regarding this abhorrent and dangerous text in almost all western and Arab scholarship".
The way that Muhajir theorized it was simple—he offered up a theological fix that allows any who desire it to sidestep the Koranic injunctions against suicide. He assesses that jihadists regard their actions as being "for the greater good"; that they are in a "weakened in the earth" situation that renders terrorism, a valid means of solution.
The term 'jihad' has accrued both violent and non-violent meanings. According to John Esposito , it can simply mean striving to live a moral and virtuous life, spreading and defending Islam as well as fighting injustice and oppression, among other things. In Lebanon, Kuwait, Jordan, and Morocco, the most frequent responses included references to "duty toward God", a "divine duty", or a "worship of God", with no militaristic connotations.
The reference stated that Jabir said, "We have returned from the lesser jihad al-jihad al-asghar to the greater jihad al-jihad al-akbar. The hadith does not appear in any of the authoritative collections, and according to the Muslim Jurist Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani , the source of the quote is unreliable:.
This saying is widespread and it is a saying by Ibrahim ibn Ablah according to Nisa'i in al-Kuna. There is weakness in its chain of transmission. Abdullah Azzam attacked it as "a false, fabricated hadith which has no basis. Nonetheless, the concept has had "enormous influence" in Islamic mysticism Sufism.
Muslim scholar Mahmoud Ayoub states that "The goal of true jihad is to attain a harmony between islam submission , iman faith , and ihsan righteous living. In modern times, Pakistani scholar and professor Fazlur Rahman Malik has used the term to describe the struggle to establish a "just moral-social order",  while President Habib Bourguiba of Tunisia has used it to describe the struggle for economic development in that country.
According to the BBC, a third meaning of jihad is the struggle to build a good society. Majid Khadduri  and Ibn Rushd  lists four kinds of jihad fi sabilillah struggle in the cause of God:. Delong-Bas lists a number of types of "jihad" that have been proposed by Muslims. Fred Donner states that, whether the Quran only sanctions defensive warfare or whether it commands the waging of an all-out war against non-Muslims depends on the interpretation of the relevant passages.
These jurists therefore maintain that only combatants are to be fought; noncombatants such as women, children, clergy, the aged, the insane, farmers, serfs, the blind, and so on are not to be killed in war. In the late 20th and early 21st centuries, the names of many militant groups included the word "jihad":. Controversy has arisen over whether the usage of the term jihad without further explanation refers to military combat, and whether some have used confusion over the definition of the term to their advantage.
Middle East historian Bernard Lewis argues that in the Quran "jihad Historian Douglas Streusand writes that "in hadith collections, jihad means armed action". In what is probably the most standard collection of hadith, Sahih al-Bukhari , "the references to jihad all assume that jihad means warfare.
In reading Muslim literature—both contemporary and classical—one can see that the evidence for the primacy of spiritual jihad is negligible. Today it is certain that no Muslim, writing in a non-Western language such as Arabic , Persian , Urdu , would ever make claims that jihad is primarily nonviolent or has been superseded by the spiritual jihad.
Cook argued that "Presentations along these lines are ideological in tone and should be discounted for their bias and deliberate ignorance of the subject" and that it "is no longer acceptable for Western scholars or Muslim apologists writing in non-Muslim languages to make flat, unsupported statements concerning the prevalence—either from a historical point of view or within contemporary Islam—of the spiritual jihad. In Ahmadiyya Islam , jihad is primarily one's personal inner struggle and should not be used violently for political motives.
Violence is the last option only to be used to protect religion and one's own life in extreme situations of persecution. Quranists do not believe that the word jihad means holy war. They believe it means to struggle, or to strive. They believe it can incorporate both military and non-military aspects. When it refers to the military aspect, it is understood primarily as defensive warfare. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Offensive jihad.
For other uses, see Jihad disambiguation. Profession of faith Prayer Fasting Alms-giving Pilgrimage. Shahada Salat Raka'ah Qibla Turbah. Sunnah salat Tahajjud Tarawih. Masturbation Hygiene Rape Zina Awrah. Riba Murabaha Takaful Sukuk. Jihad Hudna Istijarah asylum Prisoners of war. List of expeditions of Muhammad. Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam Iqbal s. Principles of State and Government Asad Ma'alim fi al-Tariq "Milestones" Qutb Governance of the Jurist "Velayat-e faqih" Khomeini Islamism and Criticism of Islamism.
Mujahideen , Jihadism , and Jihad fi sabil Allah. The neutrality of this article is disputed. Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page. Please do not remove this message until conditions to do so are met.
December Learn how and when to remove this template message. Ahmadiyya view on Jihad. The Oxford Dictionary of Islam. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Politics. Encyclopaedia of Islam 2nd ed. What is Islamic philosophy? Cambridge University Press Kindle edition. The Doctrine of Jihad in Modern History. The Islamic Law of War: A Comprehensive Guide to Belief and Practice.
Retrieved 5 January The Political Language of Islam. University of Chicago Press. Watt, Islamic Conceptions of the Holy War in: Retrieved 4 August In classical Muslim doctrine on war, likewise, genuine non-combatants are not to be harmed. These include women, minors, servants and slaves who do not take part in the fighting, the blind, monks, hermits, the aged, those physically unable to fight, the insane, the delirious, farmers who do not fight, traders, merchants, and contractors.
The main criterion distinguishing combatants from non-combatants is that the latter do not fight and do not contribute to the war effort. Jihad in Islamic History. Princeton University Press Kindle edition. Retrieved 24 August Retrieved 27 August Holy War, Just War: Exploring the Moral Meaning of Religious Violence. He further states that in Islamic theology, war is never holy; it is either justified or not. He then writes that the Quran does not use the word jihad to refer to warfare or fighting; such acts are referred to as qital.
Abou El Fadl , Khaled 23 January Wrestling Islam from the Extremists. Retrieved 17 February The theories developed to cope with the question assume that for a hearer, the meaning of a complex expression must be "computable", and therefore, modern theoretical semantics uses formal algebraic methods to construct the meaning compositionally in view of syntactic structur. Furthermore, meaning need to be "anchored" in the experience available to hearer.
In order to deal with this, theoretical semantics extensivly uses the concept of truth conditions, which roughly explain how a world must be structured in order to be matched by certain linguistic expressions. Semantic analyses are complemented by context theory and the theory of speech acts. Thus, linguistic meaning must be related to human cognitive capacities, and therefore, theoretical semantics is tightly connected with philosophical logic as well as cognitive sciences in general.
The aim of this handbook is to represent the body of theoretical knowledge which has evolved in the international research of the last two decades.
Some of the theories can now be termed "classical" in that they belong to the commonly accepted base of theoretical semantics.
Other theories are still disputed, and there areproblems still to be solved - as normal in a more developed science. The authors, who are leading experts in the field of semantics, try to balance the accepted and the questionable results.
It goes without saying that each author hold a particular position in this respect. Some articles are written in English, some in German. Since semantics is considered to be a subfield of linguistics, the articles are arranged due to linguistic points of view.
In the first 5 chapters comprising 15 articles the common principles of semantics are presented: The next 5 chapters comprising 25 articles are concerned with semantic phenomena, theories and problems which are specific for a particular class of linguistic expressions.
These are arranged according to parts of speech: This division does not reflect a theoretical position by itself, however it allows one to recognize problems connected with one another. Some more general questions are discussed in more than one article, in different perspective and vicinity. The Handbook is complemented by a service article on formal methods in semantics, followed by a comprehensive bibliography including about entries, and both a subject and a name index.
This handbook is indispensable for all research in linguistics and neighboring disciplines philosophy of language, cognitive sciences. Some of the articles can serve as basic literature for classes of advanced students. John Benjamins Publishing Format Available: This study is an attempt to explain coordinate conjoining as a rule-governed process of establishing specific semantic relations within and between sentences.
Coordination is thus conceived of both as a basic device of linguistic complex formation and as a rather fundamental principle underlying the creation of the text. From the point of view of achieving coherence, coordinate conjoining is described in this monograph as an integrative process.
Described are the conditions governing this process, the rules according to which take place, in short: Coordinate conjoining is regarded here as the result of the interplay of three factors which belong to distinct levels of semantic description:
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